Major depressive disorder: probiotics may be an adjuvant therapy.
|Major depressive disorder: probiotics may be an adjuvant therapy. 10.1016/j.mehy.2004.08.019|
|Title||Major depressive disorder: probiotics may be an adjuvant therapy.|
|Authors||AC Logan,M Katzman,|
- Major depressive disorder (MDD) , , life illness.
- Research influences MDD .
- Some beneficial bacteria, states stress and illness, influence depression by a number of mechanisms.
- research suggests that alterations
- intestinal microflora may non-immune manifestations gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
- Probiotic therapy beneficial bacteria improve balance host.
- goal report branches research order hypothesis, probiotic bacteria may potential therapy MDD treatment.
- human GI tract complex ecosystem 500
- species 200 genera.
- number factors variety location bacteria in the intestines, stomach acid secretion bowel motility.
- Two genera bacteria, lactobacilli and bif-idobacterium, beneficial effects human body.
- bacteria vitamin synthesis, stimulation system, prevention colonization, protection barrier defense system, production chain fatty acids enterocyte energy, metabolism substances lowering levels components .
- strains of probiotics cytokine secretion and antioxidants beyond the GI tract [3,4].
- Emerging research suggests fats, x-3 fatty acids , relationship potential probiotics .
Intestinal flora in MDD related conditions
- no reports state intestinal microflora human depression, there is some evidence conditions where depressive symptoms are part picture.
- 30% MDD have irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
- IBS patients shown decreased lactoba-cilli, bifidobacterium, coliforms increased aerobes reduction anaerobe aerobe ratio.
- use shown risk factor onset IBS.
- Research has disease increased risk MDD (2.7-fold higher vs. controls) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (2.7-fold higher).
- x-3 fatty acids thread , suggest intestinal microflora may .
- intestinal microflora dermatitis shown significantly lower levels of bifidobacterium and higher levels staphylococcus.
- Percentages bifidobacteria significantly lower patients with atopy vs. symptoms .
- Pediatric recurrent abdominal pain colic found associated behavi-oral problems life.
- recurrent abdominal pain childhood anxiety depressive disorders adulthood.
- investigators reported levels lactoba-cilli lower cases colic vs. controls .
- Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) fibromyalgia (FM) conditions where depressive symptoms reported.
- Researchers lower levels of bifidobacterium and higher levels enterococcus spp these patients.
- Interestingly, shown higher count CFS/FM patients, more defi-cits; nervousness, memory loss, forgetfulness confusion .
- All symptoms MDD.
- Endometriosis (EM) is a condition where depressive symptoms , lactobacilli levels low.
- four conditions -- EM, IBS, CFS FM -- migration of bacteria colon into the small intestine .
- result small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) conditions by lactulose hydrogen breath test.
- Migration of bacteria into the small intestine associated higher levels pain .
- SIBO has not investigated MDD, these patients result intestinal stasis low stomach acid secretion.
- Patients with depression are known to have low levels stomach acid production intestinal stasis.
- Cytokines depressive symptoms, interleukin 1-beta (Il-1b) tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa), acid secretion.
- addition, inactivity, to depression, associated SIBO.
- Various strains of probiotics have been shown treatment of SIBO .
- significance SIBO to depression not only complaints MDD, malabsorption fat, carbohydrate, protein, B vitamins other micronutrients.
- nutrient levels may turn host defense SIBO.
- Patients with depression are known to have low levels acid, vitamins B 12 ,B 6 zinc [11--14].
- Low levels vitamin B 6 associated conversion alpha acid mood eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA).
- Non-digestible oligosaccharides increase availability nutrients zinc, effects increased bifidobacterium.
- treatment of SIBO led improvements depression, memory concentration CFS patients .
- note Crohn's disease is a condition where depression diagnosis more than by chance.
- deficits patients with Crohn's disease, depression
- microflora Crohn's disease reported low numbers of lactobacilli .
Stress, MDD and microflora
- life events associated first onset depression episodes MDD.
- research relationship , least part, one.
- influence stress intestinal microflora subject some research animals humans.
- animal studies indicate that stressors increase bacteria and decrease lactobacilli [17,18].
- Restraint conditions, stress and food deprivation all shown microflora animal studies [19--21].
- Lower lactobacilli levels display stress-indicative behaviors animals.
- GI flora result changes gut motility, GI acidity and/or effect neurochemicals such as norepinephrine .
- stress pregnancy result in reduction lactobacilli and bifido-bacterium offspring, controls .
- Measures infant independence infant anaerobes, lactobacilli and bifidobacte-rium concentrations .
- research connection between str-essors depression offspring.
- evidence from human studies indicating that stress can microflora [24,25].
- Emotional stress lead term reductions lactobacilli and bifidobacterium .
- Bifidobacterium extre-mely emotional stress.
- Restraint stress and demands lead decreases lactobacilli and bifidobacterium humans .
Depression and cytokines
- Elevations pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon gamma (INFc), TNFa, 1L-6 1L-1b all MDD.
- fact, elevations 1L-1b TNFa associated severity depression.
- Pro-inflammatory cytokines mood by a number of mechanisms, lowering neurotransmitter precursor availability, activation hypothalamic-pituitary axis, alteration metabolism neurotransmitters neurotransmitter transporter mRNA .
- Nerve growth factors, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), role plasticity survival nervous system depression-associated atrophy hippocampus cortex.
- BDNF lower MDD, severity depressive symptoms .
- Inhibition inflammatory cytokines by antidepressants lead increased BDNF.
- Research suggests that cytokine elevation periphery not symptoms, alterations sleepwake behavior some orders magnitude levels found inflammation, infection immunopathology.
- evidence suggests cytokines influence brain functions, levels low .
Depression and oxidative stress
- human study found depressive symptoms lipid peroxidation females.
- Patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) co-morbid MDD have higher levels lipid peroxidation than OCD .
- interventions influence antioxidant defense system, bioavailability antioxidant phytochemicals composition intestinal microflora .
- x-3 Fatty acids have shown decrease lipid peroxidation antioxidant supplementation influence fat BDNF levels function rats.
Omega-3, lipids and microflora
- Research has shown fish consumption reduce risk MDD, seasonal affective disorder, disorder post-partum depression.
- evidence by wealth animal research.
- studies have beneficial effects x-3 fatty acids disorders.
- EPA candidate treatment MDD .
- contrast increased incidence depression, intake x-3 fatty acids has declined countries last 100 years.
- result supply omega-6 oils (corn, safflower, sunflower, cottonseed)
- food supply animal rearing.
- There is some evidence scale changes fat intake significantly influence intestinal microflora, , turn, intestinal microflora influence x-3 levels.
- studies suggest fat types intestinal flora.
- study involving mice three different groups; 10% corn oil, or 1% corn oil and 9% fish oil, or 1% corn oil and 9% beef fat.
- fish oil diet led three increase bifidobacteria levels and lowest levels bacteroides other groups .
- studies have shown omega-6 corn oil and acid growth bifido-bacteria.
- contrast, EPA human bacteroides .
- Arctic charr, found either 4% fish oil 7% flax oil diet increase lactic acid bacteria, lactobacilli .
- Coconut oil not raise lactic acid bacteria microflora .
- fats effect on adhesion probiotics to intestinal cells.
- acid less adhesion, flax-seed oil increase adhesion to intestinal cells.
- Seal oil, high EPA, shown increase adhesion lactobacillus paracasei by 12% intestines .
- Fatty acids bacteria and potential structure, probiotic adhesion.
- relationship between x-3 fatty acids probiotics may bi-directional, research shows bifidbacterium (Bb-12), infants 7 months, increases amount alpha-linolenic acid plasma phospholipids .
- study involving hens, shown egg EPA levels significantly increased lactoba-cillus probiotic flaxseed feed vs. flaxseed .
- prevalence MDD and seasonal affective disorder lower Japan compared to Canada.
- numbers of lactobacilli bifido-bacterium higher adults vs. Canada.
- effect intestinal flora probiotics on x-3 status, influence fish oil bacteria investigation.
Probiotics to augment treatment of depression?
- gut 100 million neurons; GI tract meeting place nerves,
- microorganisms cells.
- Microorganisms host neuroendocrine environment , , bacteria influence neuroendocrine environment by production neurochemicals such as gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), serotonin, peptides.
- Animal studies indicate that GI microorganisms pathways, absence immune response.
- Campylobacter jejuni, doses low activation, result in anxiety effects mice .
- addition, confirmed C. jejuni nuclei brainstem, counts low immune response.
- areas brainstem activation, nucleus tract nucleus, are part set nuclei information processing lead , responses bacteria .
- Probiotic bacteria may influence mood by effect on cytokine production.
- most research probiotics and cytokine release GI effects, evidence systemic effect.
- various strains of probiotics have been shown 1L-1b, TNFa, IL-6 INFc beyond the GI mucosa periphery .
- potential role low levels cytokines MDD, studies effect of probiotics on cytokines behavior.
- systemic effect probiot-ics , leading reductions inflammation rats .
- effects of probiotics on inflammatory cytokines influence MDD and BDNF levels.
- Probiotic therapy shown improve lactose maldigestion, finding lactose malabsorption associated signs MDD .
- lactose malabsorption, high lactose concentrations LL-tryptophan metabolism serotonin availability.
- Probiotics have studies involving IBS patients  rises enterococci levels, bacteria associated dysfunction CFS.
- Probiotics have been shown improve well-being patients with arthritis  reported reduce effects medications .
- combination probiotic cultures multivitamin/minerals shown improve depressive symptoms group adults stress .
- considerations MDD and probiotics influence beneficial bacteria B vitamin status , , , x-3 status mineral absorption.
- ability of probiotics antioxidants, prevention lipid peroxidation , effects MDD.
- ability of probiotics SIBO  influence MDD.
- research suggests that probiotics have potential MDD treatment.
- potential of probiotics x-3 fatty acids together area potential research MDD.
- microbes GI tract functions human body nervous systems.
- contention role intestinal microflora, potential of probiotics MDD, exploration.